Mouth is a very delicate ecosystem as it is continuously in contact with elements that are introduced from the outside, such as food and drinks.
Furthermore, invisible and numerous microorganisms populate our mouth, consisting of protozoa, fungi, viruses and above all bacteria, which in part coexist in harmonious balance with our organism, but in part can give rise to infections and diseases of the oral cavity.
On the other hand, our mouth has the best environmental conditions, favourable to the proliferation of germs: humidity, heat and food residues at will, especially in the presence of poor oral hygiene.
So, what are the main pathologies of the mouth? Let’s see them together.
1. Dental caries
Caries is definitely the most common dental pathology, can affect both the milk teeth and permanent ones and can remanifest on already treated teeth.
In the absence of adequate therapeutic treatment, caries leads to the destruction of the tooth, leading to the onset of edentulism (lack of teeth) and other important clinical pictures.
The advancement of caries normally occurs from the outside towards the inside of the tooth and when it reaches the pulp, that is the part rich in nerve endings, pulpitis occurs, which manifests itself with the classic acute toothache.
The treatment of a carious tooth depends on the extent of the lesion: it could be a simple filling, but also a reconstruction of the damaged tooth, also accompanied by a devitalization in case of pulpitis, up to the extraction of the tooth if the latter is irremediably compromised.
Prevention essentially consists in careful daily oral hygiene, supported by a correct diet and very important periodic check-ups at your trusted dentist.
2. Abscess and granuloma
If a superficial infection is not treated promptly and progresses to affect the vital part of the tooth, the serious risk is that of an infection of the apical periodontium, that is, the area surrounding the apex of the dental root.
The result is an abscess or a granuloma, depending on whether the infection escalates or becomes chronic.
In these cases, it is a very violent action by the bacteria, with symptoms such as fever, phlegmon, abscesses that can lead to even more severe complications.
In these cases, root canal therapy is a must, but it is not difficult to have to extract the affected tooth.
3. Calculus Bridge
Calculus, commonly known as tartar, is a yellowish or white mineral deposit that occurs on the surface of the teeth as a result of hardened plaque. Calculus can occur in as little as a few weeks because the teeth are regularly drenched in saliva.
A calculus bridge is a significant build-up of calculus that has grown to the point that it has completely covered the teeth and the gaps between them.
It’s critical to get rid of calculus because it’s full with bacteria. Tartar can only be removed by visiting a dental health specialist. An ultrasonic tool and special equipment are used by your dental hygienist to remove the persistent build-up.
Periodontal diseases, like caries, are very common.
The gingivitis is the term with which is indicated the first stage of periodontal disease: the causes are to be found in bacteria that accumulate in the gingival sulcus (especially in the gingival margin), producing toxins that create inflammation and swelling of the gums, giving rise to the classic bleeding, which is particularly noticeable during tooth brushing.
It is an easily curable pathology if promptly treated by a trusted dentist, but which if neglected risks evolving into much more critical pathologies.
The periodontitis is the most serious stage of periodontal disease with the gradual weakening of the gums the tooth loses support, often distancing from those adjacent, moving more and more until you drop.
The primary causes of periodontal diseases are poor oral hygiene, with the formation of plaque and tartar that affect the health of the teeth.
Healing from periodontitis is possible, but also difficult, precisely because it is an advanced degenerative process and sometimes very complex dental interventions and treatments are required.